Test 1 Questions

1. What are the similarities between Alkaptonuria and Phenylketonuria (PKU) ?
a. Alkaptonuria is caused by a mutation to gene in last stap of phenylalanine breakdown
b. Alkaptonuria results when phenylalanine cannot be broken down
c. PKU is caused by a mutation to the gene for the first step in phenylalanine breakdown
d. People who suffere from PKU need to take small/regulated amounts of phenylalanine in their diets.
(I don't know if I would qualify this exact question as a genetics question. This is getting at the symptoms of a disease more than it is discussing the similarities in the genetics of the diseases. I feel that if this answer showed up on the exam it would focus more heavily on genes and gene expression than some of the responses listed.)

2. What are the differences between RNA and DNA
a. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar groups
b. RNA is single stranded
c. DNA provides the template for translation
d. RNA contains the pyrimidine uracil

3. List the 4 Nucleotides in the structure of DNA by matching them up in their complementary base pairing

4. Define the term Pleiotropy and give an example of it
Pleiotropy - change in one gene to get many different effects
example: Blue-eyed white cats (usually are born deaf)

5. Define the terms Codon and Anticodon and give an example?
*Codon: set of 3 bases in mRNA that correspond to each amino acid
*Anticodon: the complementary bases to mRNA codons
*Ex: The codon is CCA and its anticodon is GGU

6. In which of the experiment below, showed that DNA is the molecules of heredity?
a. Griffith experiment
b. The Avery/Mcleod experiment
c. The Hershey-Chase experiment

d. The Russian Fox Farm experiment
(This question definitly wont be this straight forward on the exam. If you are trying to relate an experiment to showing DNA you might want to make sure you understand HOW the experiment shows that DNA is the molecule of heredity, not just WHICH ones shows DNA is base unit of heredity.)

7. What is a gene?
a. A protein
b. A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA
c. DNA
d. Sequence of bases in orginism's genome that corresponds to one protein

8. What are the differences in the initiation part of translation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
a. Initiation in prokaryotes starts with the small ribosomal subunit binding the the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of mRNA
b. tRNA-formylmethionine binds to small ribosomal subunit and pairs with mRNA codon to start the polypeptide chain
c. Elongation factors bind to 5' methylated guanine cap on mRNA which recruits small ribosomal subunit in Eukaryotes
d. Small ribosomal subunit scans mRNA down 3' direction until it reaches the codon AUG in Prokaryotes.

9. What are the differences in the termination part of transcription between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
a. Termination starts when the rRNA reaches a stop codon in the mRNA in Eukaryotes
b. A hairpin loop indicates transcription of a gene to stop in prokaryotes
c. Termination proteins bind to RNa Polymerase II to stop a transcript in Eukaryotes
d. Release factors bind to A site of large ribosomal subunit to stop and release the transcript.

10. What factors or environment conditions influence the folding of protein?
a. Temperature
b. High salt concentration
c. pH @ 6
d. Heat

11. What is the similarity between Alpha-helices and Beta-sheets?
a. Alpha-helices contain H-bonds between adjacent amino acids
b. Alpha-helices is a tertiary structure
c. Beta-helices contain H-bond formed between amino acid that are distant from each other.
d. Beta-Helices is a secondary structure

12. Which of the following are gene regulation checkpoints?
a. DNA rearrangements
b. Elongation Factors
c. transitional control
d. transcriptional regulation
e. RNA degradation

13. Which of these factors influence protein folding?
a. Hydrogen bonds
b. Covalent bonds

c. chaperonin complexes
d. pH
e. Osmolarity
f. Temperature

14. What is a transcriptional activator?
a. a sequence of DNA bases that enhances gene production
b. a sequence of DNA bases that silences gene production
c. a protein that rearranges DNA segments prior to transcription
d. any protein that binds to DNA, activating transcription

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