review notes

Genetic Review Notes
Transcription bubble: separation between the strands of DNA ; strands have to be separated so they can base pair with RNA; bubble moves down the strand of DNA as it is transcribed
TFII H: helicase shaped, unwinds/unzips DNA
Given a DNA sequence: Transcribe to RNA (transcription starts ~10bp downstream of TATA box); Translate to protein starting with AUG; programmed ribosomal frame shift b/c there is not enough RF2, there is a +1 or -1 frame shift and what codon it starts on
Poly-A-Tail keeps RNA from being degraded;
GeneChip Microray: ssDNA (single stranded DNA) for different genes are placed in wells and treated with certain types of mRNA to see if the mRNA base pairs with the DNA
EFMB: open-ended question, just to make sure we are thinking about what we are reading
Which DNA experiment is most convincing? Not Griffith;
RTPCR: way of looking at gene expression; can be used to look at levels of transcription of a particular gene ; works like regular PCR except uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA copies of RNA transcripts; then follow PCR steps as usual
tRNA, mRNA, rRNA: review a lot
+1 Ribosomal Frameshift: skips one base forward to change the reading frame
-1 Ribosomal Frameshift: goes back one base to change the reading frame
Purpose of Introns
Transcriptional activators are (+) proteins that interact with enhancer sequences and recruit other enzymes needed for transcription; zinc-fingers, helix-turn-helix, and leucine zippers
Questions from lab: plasmid with gene down-stream of a lactose promoter what do you need to use to get the bacteria to express the gene (circle lactose)
A LOT OF PROBLEM SOLVING QUESTIONS: transcribe and translate, give amino acid sequence, then give new amino acid sequence if there is a mutation

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