Research Papers

Color Blindness

Human color vision is accomplished through three types of photosensitive molecules: short wave-length (blue) sensitive (SWS), middle wavelength-(or green-) sensitive (MWS), and long wavelength- (or red-) sensitive (LWS) visual pigments. Each wavelength absorbs light at ~420, ~530, and ~560 nm. However, individuals with only SWS pigments and either MWS or LWS pigments have a dichromatic color vision, also known as “red-green color blindness”. Even in humans, the “red-green color blindness” is common, affecting ~8% of males. One of the central questions has been whether individuals with red-green colorblindness have lost one population of cones or whether they have the normal numbers of cones filled with two instead of three pigments.
A normal X-chromosome-linked color vision gene array is composed of a single long-wave-sensitive (L-) pigment gene followed by one or more middle-wave-sensitive (M-) pigment gene. The proximal promoter and locus control region are responsible for the expression of the pigment genes forming L- or M-cones. Due to the homology between the L- and M-pigment genes predisposes individuals to an unequal recombination, leading to the deletion of a gene or the formation of L/M hybrid genes, which explains a majority of red-green color deficiencies.

Don't judge this paper too hard :) it's obviously not even close to being finished!

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