Mutations overview

I'm not sure to what extent mutations will be on the exam,
but here are the basics that my study group discussed:


point mutation: ONE base is changed.

frameshift: (moving the reading frame)
a base is added or a base is deleted
*changes only the codons AFTER the mutation

silent mutation: (aa's the same) - one base is changed (one aa changed) but doesn't affect what aa it is (so like the 3rd base in a codon) Wobble effect. since 3rd base is changed, least likely to affect which acid it is.

missense mutation: (type of frameshift) change in aa sequence based on one or two aa added or removed (think of it as the opposite of silent mutation)

nonsense mutation: (another frameshift mutation)
*pre-mature stop codon.
(any one - occurs before the polypeptide is supposed to be finished) stops early.

wildtype: non-mutant

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