Chp 11 HW

2. Yes, because there are times when an organism is short on glucose and must conserve and/or make it via gluconeogenesis. Also, when glucose levels are high and energy demands are low, glucose should be converted to glycogen, and not broken down; therefore, enzymes in the glycolysis need to be regulated based off of condition of the organism.

3. In reticulocytes, RNA and ribosomes exist. The mRNA that was transcribed from DNA that coded for hemoglobin still remains, but the DNA is just gone. Therefore, this mRNA can still be translated into hemoglobin without a nucleus.

4. a. During Transcription
b. RNA Processing-ex: deadenylation
c. Translation

5. Since it is the same enhancer that is copied which is recognized by a specific TAP, I dont see much of a change in regulation because only 1 enhancer-TAP interaction is needed to start transcription of a single gene. By having more enhancers, you just increase sites where a specific TAP can bind to (this may allow TAP to find enhancer easier which may quicken the process up, but i dont see this changing the regulation. With more enhancer sequences, if one gets damaged/mutated, than there are others to regulated transcription, but i still dont see it changing regulation. Any thoughts?

I asked robson about this one and she just explained it and said that it will just cause the gene to have a better chance of getting activated.

8. If the promoter sequence is inverted, it would read in the opposite direction (away from the gene), and the gene would not be expressed. Inversion of enhancer does not matter because the DNA can bend and the TAP and transcription complex can orientate in order to bind to promoter, initiating transcription.

13. a. Could cause a missense, nonsense, or silent mutation in B
b. Shift reading frame of B causing frameshift mutation
c. causes frameshift mutation in B

19. a. Species A: Venus: H-1, H-2 Mars: None
Species B: Female: H-1, H-3 Male: H-1, H-3
Species C: F: H-1, H-2, H-3 M: H-2
b. A and C
c. None-same in B

25. Cysteine and possibly tryptophan

CP3. I suggest the ecoR1 region is an enhancer sequence. In the eye, janus is repressed or its silenced, but when an enhancer sequence is introduced, it is turned on. Test by introducing enhancer sequence upstream of other repressed genes that are analogous to janus. Also see if cyclops is still expressed when EcoR1 is removed (this may not say much if cyclops has more than one enhancer sequence).

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